After the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, a fierce political battle ensued for the soul of modern China. But it was the ordinary people of China who had spent the past 10 years fighting through chaos, violence, and oppression who helped forge a new path. Many never made it through the revolution, but many also took matters into their own hands by finding creative ways to survive and seize economic opportunities to put food on the table and protect their families. Millions took part in a "silent revolution" to preserve their traditions, cultures, and identities in the face of unimaginable tragedy. For the survivors who made it out on the other side of the Cultural Revolution, the world would never be the same.
This is the final episode in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It focuses on the politics surrounding Mao Zedong as well as the actions of everyday people to survive and drive change in China. Thanks for listening to the series.
In the 1970's Red Guards and "undesirables" were forced to toil away in rural China working at re-education camps or doing manual labor in the people's communes. The ordinary people of China continued to suffer and found little motivation to carry on the Cultural Revolution. Mao and the communist party realized they needed to add extra incentive if the revolutionary goals were to be realized. It turns out nothing motivates like a strong dose of nationalism and the fear of nuclear war.
This is part VII in a multi-part series on the Cultural Revolution in China. It focuses on the mass movement of people into the countryside, and the mobilization of the entire country for a potential war. The next episode after this will be the last episode in the series, discussing the end of the Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution began as a campaign against bad class elements, but spiraled out of control as counter-revolutions emerged throughout the country between rebel groups and the local party establishments. As the chaos got out of control, the army had to step in and take control of the country. But whose side would they be on? Sadly for the average person in China at this period, it probably didn't matter as the violence and destruction would continue.
This is Part VI in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It focuses on what was probably the most chaotic and destructive period of the Cultural Revolution. Future episodes will discuss how the end of the Cultural Revolution is in sight, but a whole lot more tragedy would unfold before then.
By 1967, China was engulfed in the chaos of the Cultural Revolution. But the violence of the counter-revolutions and counter-counter-revolutions was not the only source of misery for ordinary people in China. As fear spread and the Cultural Revolution expanded, it began to have a significant impact on the command economy of China. The campaign to eliminate the Four Olds was growing in intensity, leaving businesses destroyed, trade halted, libraries burned, and people struggling to make a living. The entire economy of China revolved around one man: Mao Zedong.
This is Part V in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It focuses on the campaign to eliminate the Four Olds and how this impacted the economy of China. Future episodes will chronicle the further ebbs and flows of the Cultural Revolution.
By the end of August in 1966, it was clear that the Cultural Revolution was going to be a unique historical period of violence and upheaval. Violence and brutality were becoming routine, symptoms of the incredibly modern issues that the Cultural Revolution was creating, including student protests and the psychology behind them, leadership seemingly stoking the fires of mistrust and intimidation, and people not knowing which news sources to trust. One of the saddest elements of this violence and chaos was that it was often perpetrated by teenagers. What was life like for the Red Guards, what kinds of experiences did they have at mass rallies, and what made them tick?
This is Part IV in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It focuses on the escalation of the Cultural Revolution in it's early phases and the experiences of Red Guards at mass rallies in Tiananmen Square. Future episodes will chronicle the further ebbs and flows of the Cultural Revolution.
During the first month of the Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong unleashed a whirlwind of chaos and confusion in China. Mao mobilized students as "Red Guards"- one part student group, one part paramilitary group- to terrorize class enemies and spread fear and paranoia. As Red Guard violence escalated from attacks on teachers to attacks on the power structure itself, within a single month the Cultural Revolution was already spiraling out of control.
This is Part III in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It focuses on the formation of the Red Guards and the violence and chaos of the first month of the Cultural Revolution. Future episodes will chronicle the expansion and further tragedy of the Cultural Revolution.
After the deaths of tens of millions of people during the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong had to re-establish control over the Communist Party in China. Through a process of political maneuvering and ruthless policy making, by 1966 Mao was finally ready to begin his Cultural Revolution.
This is Part II in a series on the Cultural Revolution. It talks mostly about the impacts of the Great Leap Forward and how Mao had to pave a new way forward that would ultimately culminate in the Cultural Revolution. This episode sets up a lot of the background and some of Mao's thought processes before the Cultural Revolution began. Later episodes will look at some more of the specific details and events of the Cultural Revolution.